Nevertheless, Hegel assumed that his readers are well-versed in Western philosophy. Museum Tusculanum Press. Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian, his ideas are not acceptable to some Christians even though he has had a major influence on 19th- and 20th-century theology. E. Metzke, Hegels Vorreden. In accordance with his wishes, Hegel was buried in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery next to Fichte and Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger. being–nothingness–becoming, immediate–mediate–concrete and abstract–negative–concrete) is about this movement from inner contradiction to higher-level integration or unification. Le système est présenté comme une « phénoménologie de l'esprit » puis comme une « encyclopédie de… Hegel distinguished between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being, but more remains in the substrate of non-being, which is identical to pure or unlimited thought. American author and professor Terry Pinkard’s comprehensive biographical survey of the life and ideas of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Hegel: A Biography (2000), is "the only substantial biography of Hegel" that's been published since 1844, according to The New York Review of Books' Anthony Quinton. This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented to a higher-level, more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction. His master–slave dialectic has been influential, especially in 20th-century France. Schopenhauer, Arthur. Hegel was now able to free himself from the domination of Kant’s influence and to look with a fresh eye on the problem of Christian origins. In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness. Stefan Gruner: "Hegel's Aether Doctrine". The State is "objective spirit" so "it is only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life" (section 258). Hegel was born in Stuttgart in 1770, the son of an official in the government of the Duke of Württemberg. Hegel was the last of the great system builders of Western philosophy and the greatest and most extravagant representative of the school of absolute idealism. [102] For Hegel, Heraclitus's great achievements were to have understood the nature of the infinite, which for Hegel includes understanding the inherent contradictoriness and negativity of reality; and to have grasped that reality is becoming or process and that "being" and "nothingness" are empty abstractions. Looking for an examination copy? This means that Jesus, as the Son of God, is posited by God over and against himself as other. He determined ontology as absolute logic; he assembled all the delimitations of philosophy as presence," later remarking that Hegel is thus "the last philosopher of the book and the first philosopher of writing," indicating the relation of Hegel to post-structural thought by stating "if there were a definition of Différance, it would be precisely the limit, the interruption, the destruction of the Hegelian dialectical synthesis wherever it operates. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. G.W.F. His studies at the Gymnasium concluded with his Abiturrede ("graduation speech") "Der verkümmerte Zustand der Künste und Wissenschaften unter den Türken" ("The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey").[59]:16[61]. (ed. This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion (in the Phaedo, Republic and Timaeus) of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than that possessed by inanimate objects. Son jeune frère … This notion of identity in difference, which is bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from other philosophers. Son ouvre est l'une des plus représentatives de l'Idéalisme allemand et a eu une influence décisive sur l'ensemble de la philosophie du XXe siècle. Lectures on the Philosophy of History, also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History is a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), originally given as lectures at the University of Berlin in 1822, 1828, and 1830. C’est là ce qu’on pourrait appeler sa période Schellingienne : fidèle disciple, il se borne à défe… This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor W. Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Raya Dunayevskaya, Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. Hegel asserted that, in Heraclitus, he had an antecedent for his logic: "[...] there is no proposition of Heraclitus which I have not adopted in my logic".[103]. "[145], Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing (especially in the Hegelian school) which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage". [69][70] Later in the year, Hegel's first book The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy was completed. [59]:80 While in Frankfurt, Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". Mr. Pinkard talked about his book Hegel: A Biography, published by Cambridge University . [59]:238, In November 1808, Hegel was again through Niethammer, appointed headmaster of a gymnasium in Nuremberg, a post he held until 1816. "[91] Hegel went so far as to include the concept of life as a category in his Science of Logic, likely inspired by Aristotle's emphasis on teleology, as well as Kant's treatment of Naturzweck (natural purposiveness) in the Critique of Judgment. [75]:207–208, In 1819–1827, he made two trips to Weimar, where he met Goethe, and to Brussels, the Northern Netherlands, Leipzig, Vienna, Prague, and Paris.[76]. The universe as becoming is a combination of being and non-being. For other uses, see, Articles related to Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Bern (1793–1796) and Frankfurt (1797–1801). It is now widely agreed that explaining Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis–antithesis–synthesis is inaccurate. Hi Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Agosto 27, 1770 – Nobyembre 14, 1831) usa nga Aleman nga pilosopo nga natawo ha Stuttgart, Württemberg, nga yana amo an salatan-katundan Alemanya. The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—particular and universal, nature and freedom—do not face one another as independent realities, but instead the latter, in each case, is the self-transcending of the former. In 1776, he entered Stuttgart's gymnasium illustre and during his adolescence read voraciously, copying lengthy extracts in his diary. His relations with his employers becoming strained, Hegel accepted an offer mediated by Hölderlin to take up a similar position with a wine merchant's family in Frankfurt in 1797. Pinkard doesn't have a lot to work with in terms of human drama. Hegel enseigne la philosophie sous la forme d'un système de tous les savoirs suivant une logique dialectique. Hegel died in 1831. Beginning in the 1990s after the fall of the Soviet Union, a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West. Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. For this reason, Hegel's Logic begins with the summum genus, "Being, pure Being," ("and God has the absolutely undisputed right that the beginning be made with him"[83]) from which are derived more concrete concepts such as becoming, determinate being, something, and infinity. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. This research program took on new meaning with the 1781 publication of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family. [94] In his Phenomenology of Spirit and his Science of Logic, Hegel's concern with Kantian topics such as freedom and morality and with their ontological implications is pervasive. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: [ˈgeɔʁk ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːgəl]) (lahir 27 Agustus 1770 – meninggal 14 November 1831 pada umur 61 tahun) adalah seorang filsuf idealis Jerman yang lahir di Stuttgart, Württemberg, kini di Jerman barat daya. They both know their obligations and choose to fulfill them. There, Hölderlin exerted an important influence on Hegel's thought. In Britain, the Hegelian British idealism school (members of which included Francis Herbert Bradley, Bernard Bosanquet and in the United States Josiah Royce) was challenged and rejected by analytic philosophers Moore and Russell. He had already learned the elements of Latin from his mother by the time he entered the Stuttgart grammar school, where he remained for his education until he was 18. Doctrines of judgment investigate relations of subject and predicate; and doctrines of inference lay out the forms of syllogisms originally found in Aristotelian term logic. The State involves three "moments". In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. (Karl Barth. The second essay was an answer to the question of how Christianity had ever become the authoritarian religion that it was, if in fact the teaching of Jesus was not authoritarian but rationalistic. Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering lectures; his lectures on aesthetics, the philosophy of religion, the philosophy of history and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from students' notes. [30][31], Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism,[32] in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. Hegel's illegitimate son, Ludwig Fischer, had died shortly before while serving with the Dutch army in Batavia and the news of his death never reached his father. For discussion of the various schools of Hegelian thought, see Hegelianism. He studied in Stuttgart, and after graduating from the gymnasium there he began to study philosophy and theology in the seminary in Tübingen. Hegel enseigne la philosophie sous la forme d'un système de tous les savoirs suivant une logique dialectique. Hegel was born on 27 August 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. [63] They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. "[81], So how are the categories derived? [126], According to Walter Kaufmann, the basic idea of Hegel's works, especially the Phenomenology of Spirit, is that a philosopher should not "confine him or herself to views that have been held but penetrate these to the human reality they reflect". To the contrary, the fundamental notion of Hegel's dialectic is that things or ideas have internal contradictions. The philosopher Walter Kaufmann argued that there was sharp criticism of traditional Christianity in Hegel's early theological writings. As a schoolboy he made a collection of extracts, alphabetically arranged, comprising annotations on classical authors, passages from newspapers, and treatises on morals and mathematics from the standard works of the period. Hegel was the son of a revenue officer. [93]:127–128 All three find common ground on the unique position of humans in the universe, relative to animals and inanimate objects. [101] In fact, Hegel's distinctions as to what he meant by civil society are often unclear. Having received his theological certificate (Konsistorialexamen) from the Tübingen Seminary, Hegel became Hofmeister (house tutor) to an aristocratic family in Bern (1793–1796). Well, a big part of the reason may be that the man just didn't lead a particularly scintillating life. [59]:548 Early the following year, Hegel's sister Christiane committed suicide by drowning. It is rational because the same, underlying, logical, developmental order underlies every domain of reality and self-conscious rational thought, although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness. Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) est un philosophe allemand. She died of bilious fever (Gallenfieber) when Hegel was thirteen. the French Revolution) would cause the creation of its "antithesis" (e.g. It does not occur anywhere in, "One of the few things on which the analysts, pragmatists, and existentialists agree with the dialectical theologians is that Hegel is to be repudiated: their attitude toward Kant, Aristotle, Plato, and the other great philosophers is not at all unanimous even within each movement; but opposition to Hegel is part of the platform of all four, and of the Marxists, too.". Gintinkangan niya han Hegelianismo nga bahin han Aleman nga Ideyalismo. His chief friends during that period were a pantheistic poet, J.C.F. Des promos et des réductions alléchantes vous attendent toute l'année dans notre catégorie Livres Philosophie. This is because, as Hegel suggested by his introduction of the concept of "reality",[95]:111 what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" (following the Latin etymology of "real", more "thing-like") than what does not. According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true (in Hegel's terms "speculative") philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. One of the founders of modern philosophical thought Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) has gained the reputation of being one of the most abstruse and impenetrable of thinkers. Nicht mit der Welt, sondern mit der Freiheit bringt Klaus Vieweg Hegel schon im Titel seiner Biographie zusammen.